Science Articles

Science Articles

Research: 

Adult celiac disease followed by onset of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Adult celiac disease followed by onset of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Celiac disease has been associated with autoimmune disease (eg, autoimmune thyroiditis) and the appearance of different autoantibodies (eg, antidouble-stranded DNA). Conversely, tissue transglutaminase antibodies have been detected in autoimmune disorders,including systemic lupus erythematosus i(SLE), but cases of celiac disease with SLE have been only rarely recorded. METHODS: In this study, 246 patients with biopsy-defined celiac disease were evaluated for a prior diagnosis of SLE on the basis of American Rheumatological Association-defined clinical and serologic parameters. RESULTS: There were 6 patients with celiac disease and SLE, or 2.4%, including 4 females and 2 males. Their mean age at diagnosis of celiac disease was 44.7 years and SLE 50 years. In all patients, the diagnosis of SLE was established from 2 years to more than 10 years after the diagnosis of celiac disease, with a mean of 5.3 years. The celiac disease in all 6 patients responded to a gluten-free diet with histologic normalization of the small intestinal biopsies. Despite this small bowel biopsy response, SLE appeared later in the clinical course of the celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SLE occurs far more frequently in biopsy-defined celiac disease than is currently appreciated, and detection may be more likely if the period of clinical follow-up of the celiac disease is prolonged.

While celiac was found to be the cause of earlier FM programs failures the Two-Edged Sword Diet Plus the protocol of raising the number of Platinum Plus; the addition of bile salts; the use of Sea-AloeGold plus the standard FM has been so for: 100% successful in removing both the celiac and the lupus (SLE) readings. Celiac/SLE 4. Celiac 40 (estimated).

Link to Source:

National Center for Biotechnology Information


National Center for Biotechnology Information

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Research: 

Amino acids as regulators of gene expression

Amino acids as regulators of gene expression

The role of amino acids as substrates for protein synthesis is well documented. However, a function for amino acids in modulating the signal transduction pathways that regulate mRNA translation has only recently been described. Interesting, some of the signaling pathways regulated by amino acids overlap with those classically associated with the cellular response to hormones such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors. The focus of this review is on the signaling pathways regulated by amino acids, with a particular emphasis on the branched-chain amino acid leucine, and the steps in mRNA translation controlled by the signaling pathways.

Link to Source:

Nutrition & Metabolism


Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA

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Research: 

Deficiency of dietary EAA preferentially inhibits mRNA translation of ribosomal proteins in liver of meal-fed rats.

Deficiency of dietary EAA preferentially inhibits mRNA translation of ribosomal proteins in liver of meal-fed rats.

…the proportion of rp mRNAs residing in polysomes was two- to fivefold less in rats fed diets lacking
tryptophan, leucine, or BCAA compared with rats fed the control diet.…

Link to Source:

National Center for Biotechnology Information


Deficiency of dietary EAA preferentially inhibits mRNA translation of ribosomal proteins in liver of meal-fed rats.

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Research: 

Drug-Resistant Bacteria Found in Arctic

Drug-Resistant Bacteria Found in Arctic

Swedish researchers now find drug-resistant bacteria have infiltrated one of the last outposts of wilderness, the Arctic, hitching a ride way up north on birds.

Link to Source:

Fox News


Drug-Resistant Bacteria Found in Arctic

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Research: 

Effect of amino acid deprivation on initiation of protein synthesis in rat hepatocytes.

Effect of amino acid deprivation on initiation of protein synthesis in rat hepatocytes

…Deprivation of total amino acids or single, essential amino acids resulted in a rapid decrease
in the rate of protein synthesis, which was readily reversed by re-addition of the deficient amino acid(s).…

Link to Source:

American Journal of Cell Physiology


Effect of amino acid deprivation on initiation of protein synthesis in rat hepatocytes

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Research: 

Effects of Supplementation and Depletion of a Single Essential Amino Acid on Hepatic Polyribosome Profile in Rats.

Effects of Supplementation and Depletion of a Single Essential Amino Acid on Hepatic Polyribosome Profile in Rats

…The results suggested that, when rats were fed a protein-free diet, methionine is the first limiting amino acid for liver protein synthesis.…
These results indicated that, under meal-feeding condition which may be considered more a physiological condition than force-feeding, the deficiency of
single essential amino acid generally causes the disaggregation of hepatic polysomes leading the decreased synthesis of hepatic proteins.…

Link to Source:

The Journal of Nutrition


Effects of Supplementation and Depletion of a Single Essential Amino Acid on Hepatic Polyribosome Profile in Rats

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Research: 

Effects of protein deficiency and diet consistency on the parotid gland and parotid saliva of rats.

Effects of protein deficiency and diet consistency on the parotid gland and
parotid saliva of rats

Protein deficiency results in an increased susceptibility to dental caries,
suggesting that oral host-defense properties are compromised.

Link to Source:

Journal of Dental Research


Effects of protein deficiency and diet consistency on the parotid gland and
parotid saliva of rats

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Research: 

Functions of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in Lipid Metabolism

Functions of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in Lipid Metabolism

It is known that plasma lipid levels are controlled not only by dietary fat and carbohydrate but also by dietary protein and amino acids.
Although it used to be thought that the source of protein was important, it is known that amino acid composition, amino acids themselves,
and peptides from digested protein are more important than the protein source…

Link to Source: The Journal of Nutrition


Functions of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in Lipid Metabolism

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Research: 

Iodine Malabsorpiton/Protein Deficiency

Iodine Malabsorpiton/Protein Deficiency

…iodine malabsorption appears to be a long-term consequence of protein and calorie deficiency, and also might be regarded as a contributory factor for endemic goiter epidemiology…

Link to Source:

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition


iodine malabsorpiton/protein deficiency

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Research: 

Mechanisms of Food Intake Repression in Indispensable Amino Acid Deficiency

Mechanisms of Food Intake Repression in Indispensable Amino Acid Deficiency

…continued IAA depletion is incompatible with maintenance of protein synthesis and survival…

Link to Source:

Annual Review of Nutrition


Mechanisms of Food Intake Repression in Indispensable Amino Acid Deficiency

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Research: 

Mineral content of edible marine seaweeds.

Mineral content of edible marine seaweeds.

Mineral content was determined in several brown (Fucus vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Chondrus crispus, Porphyra tenera) edible marine sea vegetables. Seaweeds contained high proportions of ash (21.1–39.3%) and sulphate (1.3–5.9%). In brown algae, ash content (30.1–39.3%) was higher than in red algae (20.6–21.1%). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry of the ashes indicated that marine seaweeds contained higher amounts of both macrominerals (8.083–17,875 mg/100g; Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (5.1–15.2 mg/100 g; Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu), than those reported for edible land plants. Edible brown and red seaweeds could be used as a food supplement to help meet the recommended daily intake of some essential minerals and trace elements.

Link to Source:

Science Direct


Mineral content of edible marine seaweeds

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Research: 

Newer concepts of the indispensable amino acids.

Newer concepts of the indispensable amino acids.

In healthy adult humans, eight amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine,
tryptophan, and valine) were shown classically by nitrogen balance studies to be indispensable. Subsequent studies
classifying histidine as indispensable are reviewed in this article. We also review the evidence that in certain
nutritional or disease states or in certain stages of development otherwise dispensable amino acids may become
indispensable. Arginine, cysteine, and tyrosine thus may be considered as acquired indispensable amino acids.
Evidence for the indispensability of taurine is also considered. We propose a classification of the indispensability
of amino acids based on clinical and therapeutic considerations.

Link to Source:

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Newer concepts of the indispensable amino acids. (Website temporarily unavailable.)

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Research: 

Nutritional Control of Gene Expression: How Mammalian Cells Respond to Amino Acid Limitation*

Nutritional Control of Gene Expression: How Mammalian Cells Respond to Amino Acid Limitation*

Limiting any essential amino acid initiates this signaling cascade, which leads to increased translation of a
“master regulator,” activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, and ultimately, to regulation of many steps
along the pathway of DNA to RNA to protein…

Link to Source:

Annual Review of Nutrition


NUTRITIONAL CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION: How Mammalian Cells Respond to Amino Acid Limitation*

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Research: 

Part A: Salmonella prevalence estimates

Part A: Salmonella prevalence estimates

Salmonella is an important cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. Farm animals and food of
animal origin form an important source of human Salmonella infections. Therefore, in order to
reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis in the European Union, the Community legislation
foresees setting of Salmonella reduction targets for food-animal populations including turkey
flocks. To underpin such a target, a European Union-wide baseline survey was carried out to
determine the prevalence of Salmonella in commercial turkey holdings with at least 250 birds for
breeding turkeys and with at least 500 birds for fattening turkeys. The survey was the third of
several baseline surveys to be conducted in the Community.

Link to Source:

European Food Safety Authority


efsa link
 

View Summary .pdf (28.1kb)

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Research: 

Protein and Older Adults

Protein and Older Adults

Body composition changes as people get older. One of the noteworthy
alterations is the reduction in total body protein…This contributes to impaired wound healing, loss of skin
elasticity, and an inability to fight infection.…Protein tissue accounts for 30% of whole-body protein
turnover but that rate declines to 20% or less by age 70.…inadequate protein intake contributes to a decrease in reserve capacity,
increased skin fragility, decreased immune function, poorer healing, and
longer recuperation from illness…

Link to Source:

Journal of the American College of Nutrition


Protein and Older Adults

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Research: 

Quantitative Effects of Nutritional Essential Amino Acid Deficiency Upon Immune Responses to Tumors in Mice

Quantitative Effects of Nutritional Essential Amino Acid Deficiency Upon Immune Responses to Tumors in Mice

Deficiency or imbalance of essential amino acids in the diet may produce profound depression of immune responses
and apparent, marked changes in the immune resistance of the host animal to tumors.…

Link to Source:

Journal of Experimental Medicine


QUANTITATIVE EFFECTS OF NUTRITIONAL ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID DEFICIENCY UPON IMMUNE RESPONSES TO TUMORS IN MICE

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Research: 

Regulation of Global and Specific mRNA Translation by Amino Acids

Regulation of Global and Specific mRNA Translation by Amino Acids

A continuous supply of a complete complement of essential amino acids is a prerequisite for maintenance of optimal rates of protein synthesis in
both liver and skeletal muscle. Deprivation of even a single essential amino acid causes a decrease in the synthesis of essentially all cellular
proteins through an inhibition of the initiation phase of mRNA translation… Thus, deprivation of essential amino acids not only directly
and rapidly represses global mRNA translation, but also potentially results in a reduction in the capacity to synthesize protein.

Link to Source:

The Journal of Nutrition


Regulation of Global and Specific mRNA Translation by Amino Acids

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Research: 

Regulation of Global and Specific mRNA Translation by Amino Acids

Regulation of Global and Specific mRNA Translation by Amino Acids

Thus, deprivation of essential amino acids not only directly and rapidly represses global mRNA translation, but also potentially results in a reduction in the capacity to synthesize protein.

Link to Source:

The Journal of Nutrition


Regulation of Global and Specific mRNA Translation by Amino Acids

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Research: 

The GCN2 eIF2α Kinase Regulates Fatty-Acid Homeostasis in the Liver during Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid

The GCN2 eIF2α Kinase Regulates Fatty-Acid Homeostasis in the Liver during Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid

Metabolic adaptation is required to cope with episodes of protein deprivation and malnutrition.

Link to Source:

Cell Metabolism


The GCN2 eIF2α Kinase Regulates Fatty-Acid Homeostasis in the Liver during Deprivation of an Essential Amino Acid

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Research: 

The case for regulating indispensable amino acid metabolism: the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-knockout mouse.

The case for regulating indispensable amino acid metabolism: the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-knockout mouse

BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids) are indispensable (essential) amino acids that are required for body protein synthesis. Indispensable
amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must be acquired from the diet…Twenty amino acids are required for protein synthesis.
In man and mammals, nine amino acids cannot be synthesized endogenously and/or in sufficient amounts. These amino acids, including the BCAAs
(branched-chain amino acids) leucine, isoleucine and valine, must be acquired in the diet and are classified as nutritionally indispensable
(essential) amino acids. If a single indispensable amino acid is limiting, protein synthesis is inhibited. The need of the organism for each
indispensable amino acid for protein synthesis and for non-protein functions defines the individual daily indispensable amino acid requirement…

Link to Source:

The Biochemical Society, London


The case for regulating indispensable amino acid metabolism: the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-knockout mouse

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Research: 

The role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. I. Reduction in rates of synthesis resulting from amino acid deprivation and recovery during flow-through perfusion.

The role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. I. Reduction in rates of synthesis resulting from amino acid deprivation and recovery during flow-through perfusion

Decreased rates of protein synthesis which occurred in rat livers perfused with amino acid-deficient medium were accompanied by a loss of polysomes and a doubling of concentrations of ribosomal subunits and monomers as compared to unperfused liver or livers perfused with amino acid-supplemented medium.

Link to Source:

The Journal of Biological Chemistry


The role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. I. Reduction in rates of synthesis resulting from amino acid deprivation and recovery during flow-through perfusion

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Research: 

The role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. II. Effects of amino acid deficiency on peptide chain initiation, polysomal aggregation, and distribution of albumin mRNA…

The role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. II. Effects of amino acid deficiency on peptide
chain initiation, polysomal aggregation, and distribution of albumin mRNA…

Decreased rates of protein synthesis which occurred in rat livers perfused with amino acid-deficient medium were accompanied by a loss of
polysomesand a doubling of concentrations of ribosomal subunits and monomers as compared to unperfused liver or livers perfused with amino
acid-supplemented medium.

Link to Source:

The Journal of Biochemistry


The role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. II. Effects of amino acid deficiency on peptide
chain initiation, polysomal aggregation, and distribution of albumin mRNA…

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Research: